Production technology is a multi disciplinary research area with a clear focus on industrial implementation. Production technology comprises all activities involved, including necessary equipment, to process and refine a raw material into a ready to use product, also including the recycling activities needed to reclaim the material for new use. Research on manufacturing systems can embrace several of these activities or areas, but usually carried out on a more general level and usually excluding manufacturing processes and specific manufacturing equipment. A number of so called production output parameters are of great importance to research and development in this area: quality parameters, downtime parameters, production rate parameters and environmental parameters. These output parameters are usually summarized in the concept of production reliability. The relative importance of a certain research question within manufacturing systems, is decided by whether the output parameters have a potential to be positively affected or improved. At the division of Material and Production Engineering, research has been pursued within the following areas: lean production, recycling technology, Systematic Production Analysis (SPA) Manufacturing Economic Simulation (MES).